1.  Mäkikallio K, Tekay A, Jouppila P (1999) Yolk sac and umbilicoplacental
hemodynamics during early human embryonic development. Ultrasound in Obstetrics
and Gynecology 14:175-179.
2.  FitzGerald MJT, FitzGerald M (1994) Human Embryology. Baillière Tindall, London.

Fetal circulation
3.  Brezinka C (2001) Fetal hemodynamics. J Perinat Med 29:371-380.

Oxygen, a continuous need
4.  DarwinE (1801) Zoonomia; or, The Laws of Organic Life, Third Edition, Vol. II,
London: J Johnson, p 192.

Placental to pulmonary blood-volume shift with the first breath
5.  Redmond A, Isana S, Ingall D (1965) Relation of onset of respiration to placental
transfusion. Lancet 1 (6 Feb):283-285.

Alveolar expansion
6.  Jäykkä, S (1958) Capillary erection and the structural appearance of fetal and
neonatal lungs. Acta Pædiatrica 47:484-500.
7.  Mercer JS, Skovgaard RL. (2002) Neonatal transitional physiology: a new
paradigm. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2002 Mar;15(4):56-75.

Postnatal placental respiration
8.  Dunn PM (1966) Postnatal Placental Respiration. Developmental Medicine and
Child Neurology 8: 60-608.

Controversy over umbilical cord clamping
9.  White C (1773) A Treatise on the Management of Pregnant and Lying-In Women.
Canton, MA: Science History Publications, 1987
10.  Darwin E (1801) Zoonomia; or, The Laws of Organic Life, Third Edition, Vol. III,
London: J Johnson, p 302.
11 Budin P (1875, 1876) A quel moment doit-on pratiquer la ligature du cordon
ombilical? Le Progrès Médical 3 (#51):750-751, (#52):765-767, 4 (#1):2-3.
12. Hofmeier M (1878) Ueber den Zeitpunkt der Abnablung Centralblatt Für
Gynäkologie 2:409-411
13. v. Engel G (1885) Über den Zeitpunkt der Abnabelung. Centralblatt für
Gynäkologie 46: 721-727.
14. Rachmanow AN (1914) Methode der Nichtunterbindung der Nabelschnur.  
Ausgeführt bei 10000 Geburten in der Städtisxhen Gebäranstalt in memoriam von
Frau Abrikosowa in Moskau. Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie 38:590-592
15. Frischkorn HB, Rucker MP (1939) The relationship of the time of ligation of the
cord to the red blood count of the infant.  American Journal of Obstetrics and
Gynecology 38: 592-594.
16. Wilson EE, Windle WF, Alt HL (1941) Deprivation of placental blood as a cause of
iron deficiency in infants. Am. J. Dis. Child. 62:320-327.
17. Price EW (1944) Why tie the cord? British Medical Journal, 1944 1:772
18. Vaughn K (1944) Why tie the cord? British Medical Journal 1944 2:58
19. Chesterman CC (1944) Why tie the cord? British Medical Journal 1944 2:125
20. Jackson GA (1944) Why tie the cord? British Medical Journal, 1944 2:125
21. Gunther M (1957) The transfer of blood between baby and placenta in the minutes
after birth. Lancet 1957 1:1277-1280
22. Mahaffey LW, Rossdale PD (1957) The newborn infant's oxygen-supply. Lancet 2
(13 Jul):95.
23. Whipple GA, Sisson TR, Lund CJ (1957) Delayed ligation of the umbilical cord; its
influence on the blood volume of the newborn. Obstet Gynecol. 1957 Dec;10(6):603-
24. Leak WN (1959) When to tie the cord. British Medical Journal 1959 1:584-585.
25. Hudson AT (1967) Relation of time of ligation of umbilical cord to neonatal anemia.
J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1967 Aug;66(12):1369-72.
26. Emmanouilides GC & Moss AJ (1971) Respiratory distress in the newborn: effect of
cord clamping before and after onset of respiration. Biol Neonate. 1971;18(5):363-8.
27. Saigal S, O'Neill A, Surainder Y, Chua LB, Usher R. (1972) Placental transfusion
and hyperbilirubinemia in the premature. Pediatrics. 1972 Mar;49(3):406-19
28. Theorell K, Prechtl HF, Blair AW, Lind J. (1973) Behavioural state cycles of normal
newborn infants. A comparison of the effects of early and late cord clamping. Dev Med
Child Neurol. 1973 Oct; 15(5): 597-605
29. Künzel W. (1982) Abnabelung – Überlegungen zur Wahl des richtigen Zeitpunktes
- [Cord clamping at birth - considerations for choosing the right time]. Z Geburtshilfe
Perinatol. 1982 Apr-May; 186(2): 59-64.
30. Dunn PM. (1988) Tight nuchal cord and neonatal hypovolaemic shock. Arch Dis
Child. 1988 May; 63(5): 570-1
31. Morley GM (1998) Cord closure: can hasty clamping injure the newborn? OBG
Management 7:29-36.
32. Dunn PM. (1992) Banking umbilical cord blood. Lancet. 1992 Aug 1; 340(8814):
33. Buckley S.  (2001) A natural approach to the third stage of labour. A look at early
cord clamping, cord blood harvesting, and other medical interference.  Midwifery
Today Int Midwife. 2001 Fall;(59):33-6.
34. Mercer JS. (2001) Current best evidence: a review of the literature on umbilical
cord clamping. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2001 Nov-Dec;46(6):402-14.
35. Capasso L, Raimondi F, Capasso A, Crivaro V, Capasso R, Paludetto R. (2003)
Early cord clamping protects at-risk neonates from polycythemia. Biol Neonate. 2003;

Textbooks of obstetrics and midwifery
36. Churchill F (1850) On the Theory and Practice of Midwifery. London: Henry
37. Swayne JG (1856) Obstetric Aphorisms: For the use of students commencing
midwifery practice. London: John Churchill.
38. Lusk WT (1882) The Science and Art of Midwifery.  New York: D Appleton and
Company, pp214-215
39. Leishman W (1888) A System of Midwifery Glasgow James MacLehose & Sons.
40. Corney, BG (1899) Instructions with reference to the treatment of the umbilical
41. King AFA (1907) A Manual of Obstetrics, Tenth Edition.  Lea Brothers & Co.,
Philadelphia and New York
42. Jellett, H (1910) A Manual of Midwifery for Students and Practitioners.  New York:
William Wood & Company MDCCCCX
43. Williams JW (1917) Obstetrics: A Text-Book for the Use of Students and
Practitioners, Fourth Edition.
44. von Reuss, AR (1921) The Diseases of the Newborn.  New York William Wood &
Co, MCMXXI (Vienna, January 1914)
45. DeLee JB (1930) The Principles and Practice of Obstetrics.  Philadelphia and
London: WB Saunders Company.
46. Curtis AH, ed (1933) Obstetrics and Gynecology (3 vols).  Philadelphia & London:
WB Saunders Company.
47. Fitzgibbon, G (1937) Obstetrics. Browne and Nolan Limited,
Dublin/Belfast/Cork/Waterford, 1937.
48. Johnstone RW  (1949) A Text-Book of Midwifery, for Students and Practitioners,
Fourteenth Edition. London: Adam and Charles Black.
49. Greenhill JP (1951) Principles and Practice of Obstetrics; originally by Joseph B.
DeLee, M.D., Tenth Edition.  W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London.
50. Greenhill, JP (1955) Obstetrics Eleventh Edition WB Saunders Company,
Philadelphia and London.  
51. Greenhill JP (1965) Obstetrics: From the original text of Joseph B. DeLee, MD.
Thirteenth Edition. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia & London.
52. Garrey MM, Govan ADT, Hodge C, Callander R (1974) Obstetrics Illusrated,
Second Edition, Churchill Livingstgone: Edinburgh and London.
53. Bodyazhina V (1983) Textbook of Obstetrics: Translated from the Russian by
Alexander Rosinkin (revised from the 1980 edition). Mir Publishers, Moscow.
54. Beischer, NA, MacKay EV (1986) Obstetrics and the Newborn: An illustrated
textbook, Second Edition.  WB Saunders Company, Sydney, Philadelphia, London,
Toronto, Tokyo, Hong Kong, 1986.

Change of opinion
55. Eastman HJ (1950) Williams Obstetrics, Tenth Edition, pp 397-398

Fear of jaundice
56. Saigal S, Usher RH. (1977) Symptomatic neonatal plethora. Biol Neonate. 1977;32

Obstetric protocols
57. Turrentine JE (2003) Clinical Protocols in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Second
Edition.  The Parthenon Publishing Group, Boca Raton, London, New York,
Washington DC.

Textbooks promoting immediate clamping of the umbilical cord
58. Hibbard, Bryan M (1988) Principles of Obstetrics.  Butterworths, London, Boston,
Durban, Singapore, Sydney, Toronto, Wellington.
59. Chamberlain G, Gibbins CR, Dewhurst (1989) Illustrated Textbook of Obstetrics J.
B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.
60. McGregor Kelly, J (1994) General Care (chapt 22) in Avery GB, /fletcher MA,
MacDonald MG, eds .  Neonatology, Pathophysiology and Management of the
Newborn, Fourth Edition.  J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1994.
61. Chanberlain G & Bowen-Simpkins P (2000) A Practice of Obstetrics and
Gynecology, a Textbook for General Practice and the DRCOG. Third Edition. Churchill
Livingstone, Edinburgh, London, New York
62. Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL (2002)  Obstetrics: Normal and Problem
Pregnancies, Fourth Edition.  Churchill Livingstone, Harcourt Health Sciences: New
York, Edinburgh, London, Philadelphia.

Hypovolemic shock
63. Murray NA, Roberts IA. Neonatal transfusion practice. Arch Dis Child Fetal
Neonatal Ed. 2004 Mar;89(2):F101-7.

Pulsation of the umbilical cord stump and respiratory distress
64. Desmond MM, Kay JL, Megarity AL (1959) The phases of "transitional distress"
occurring in neonates in association with prolonged postnatal umbilical cord
pulsations. Journal of Pediatrics 55:131-151.

Ischemic brain damage
65. Ranck JB, Windle WF (1959). Brain damage in the monkey, Macaca mulatta, by
asphyxia neonatorum.  Experimental Neurology 1: 130-154.
66. Jacobson HN & Windle WF (1960) Responses of foetal and new-born monkeys to
asphyxia.  The Journal of Physiology (London) 153:447-456.
67. Windle, W. F. (1969). Brain damage by asphyxia at birth. Scientific American, 221
(#4), 76-84.
68. Faro MD, Windle WF (1969) Transneuronal degeneration in brains of monkeys
asphyxiated at birth. Experimental Neurology 24: 38-53.
69. Berman D, Karalitzky AR, Berman AJ (1971) Auditory thresholds in monkeys
asphyxiated at birth.  Experimental Neurology 31:140-149.
70. Myers RE (1972) Two patterns of perinatal brain damage and their conditions of
occurrence.  American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 112:246-276.
71. Sechzer JA, Faro MD, Windle WF. Studies of monkeys asphyxiated at birth:
implications for minimal cerebral dysfunction.  Semin Psychiatry. 1973 Feb;5(1):19-34.

Language development
72. Moore JK, Perazzo LM, Braun A (1995). Time course of axonal myelination in the
human brainstem auditory pathway.  Hearing Research 87:21-31, 91:208-209.
73. Yakovlev PI and Lecours A-R (1967) The myelogenetic cycles of regional
maturation of the brain.  In A. Minkowski (Ed.), Regional Development of the Brain in
Early Life (pp. 3-70).  Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
74. Brown R (1973) A First Language: The Early Stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press.
75. VonHungen K, Roberts S, Hill DF (1974) Developmental and regional variations in
neurotransmitter-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems in cell-free preparations from rat
brain. Journal of Neurochemistry 22:811-819.
76. Kungel M and Friauf E (1995). Somatostatin and leu-enkephalin in the rat auditory
brainstem during fetal and postnatal development.  Anatomy and Embryology, 191,

Jaundice of brainstem nuclei damaged by ischemia
77. Orth J (1875) Ueber das Vorkommen von Bilirubinkrystallen bei neugebornen
Kindern.  Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medicin
80. Schmörl G (1904) Zur Kenntnis des Ikterus neonatorum, insbesondere der dabie
auftretenden Gehirn veränderungen.  Verhandlung der deutschen pathologischen
Gesellschaft 6:109-115.
81, Zimmerman HM and Yannet H (1933). Kernicterus: jaundice of the nuclear masses
of the brain.  American Journal of Diseases of Children, 45, 740-759.
82. Dublin WB (1951) Neurologic lesions of erythroblastosis fetalis in relation to
nuclear deafness. Am J Clin Pathol. 1951 Oct;21(10):935-9
83. Kelemen G (1956) Erythroblastosis fetalis: pathologic report on the hearing organs
of a newborn infant. Archives of Otolaryngology 63: 392-398
84. Rozdilsky B, Olszewski J (1961) Experimental study of the toxicity of bilirubin in
newborn animals. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1961 Apr;20:193-205.
85. Lucey JF, Hibbard E, Behrman RE, Esquival FO, Windle WF (1964) Kernicterus in
asphyxiated newborn monkeys.  Experimental Neurology 9:43-58.
86. Jirka JH, Duckrow RB, Kendig JW, Maisels MJ (1985)Effect of bilirubin on brainstem
auditory evoked potentials in the asphyxiated rat. Pediatr Res. 1985 Jun;19(6):556-60.
87. Ives NK, Cox DW, Gardiner RM, Bachelard HS (1988)The effects of bilirubin on
brain energy metabolism during normoxia and hypoxia: an in vitro study using 31P
nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Pediatr Res. 1988 Jun;23(6):569-73.

Placental fetal-maternal blood barrier
88. Dunn PM, Fraser ID, Raper AB (1966) Influence of early cord ligation on the
transplacental passage of foetal cells. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1966 Oct;73
89. Dunn PM (1966) The placental venous pressure during and after the third stage of
labour following early cord ligation. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1966 Oct;73(5):

Greater Male vulnerability
90. Simon N, Volicer L (1976) Neonatal asphyxia in the rat: greater vulnerability of
males and persistent effects on brain monoamine synthesis. Journal of Neurochemistry
91. Stevenson DK, Verter J, Fanaroff AA, Oh W, Ehrenkranz RA, Shankaran S,
Donovan EF, Wright LL, Lemons JA, Tyson JE, Korones SB, Bauer CR, Stoll BJ, Papile
LA (2000) Sex differences in outcomes of very low birthweight infants: the newborn
male disadvantage. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2000 Nov;83(3):F182-5
92. Sheiner E, Levy A, Katz M, Hershkovitz R, Leron E, Mazor M (2004) Gender does
matter in perinatal medicine. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2004 Jul-Aug;19(4):366-9.
93. American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders, DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Human assisted animal birth
94. Mahaffey LW, Rossdale PD (1959) A convulsive syndrome in newborn foals
resembling pulmonary syndrome in the newborn infant. Lancet. 1959 Jun 13;1(7085):
From the bibliography for
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